Piano historie

Female Pianist 107155

Likevel er pianoet et relativt nytt instrument, både i hjemmet og i konsertsalene. Det mangesidige pianoet ble utviklet på 1700-tallet, da cembaloet ble ansett for å være altfor begrenset. Cembaloet, som var den tidens dominerende tangentinstrument, får lyd ved at strengene klimpres når det spilles på tangentene, og tonestyrken påvirkes stort sett ikke av trykket fra fingeren Piano er et klaverinstrument med vertikalt plasserte strenger strukket i et stivt rammeverk. Strengene slås an av filtdekkede hammere som aktiveres når tangentene på klaviaturet trykkes ned. Flygelet er nært beslektet med pianoet, men i flyglene er strengene plassert horisontalt. Dette gjør at instrumentene kan bygges betydelig større og mer volumsterke, så i konsertsammenheng er det.

Jan Feddersen über Benny Anderssons Album "Piano

Fra 1887 til 1908 drev Brødrene Hals også musikkhandel, -forlag og konsertbyrå. Bedriften spilte en viktig rolle både i norsk håndverks- og musikklivs historie. På det meste var det ansatt rundt 100 personer i bedriften. I 1918 hadde de produsert mer enn 24 000 instrumenter, både pianoer og flygler When talking about piano history, mention must be made of the early instruments that paved its way. The first historical mention of instruments is in Genesis 4:21. The King James Version reads as follows: And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ Han har skrevet boken The art of the piano om pianoets 300 år gamle historie. - Cristoforis aller første piano spilte ikke sterkt, men det kunne klinge flytende legato, og med den. The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by wooden hammers that are coated with a softer material (modern hammers are covered with dense wool felt; some early pianos used leather). It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys (small levers) that. Store norske leksikon er et gratis og komplett oppslagsverk skrevet av fagfolk på bokmål og nynorsk. Med opptil 3 millioner brukere i måneden og 550 000 leste artikler hver dag er leksikonet Norges største nettsted for forskningsformidling

A Brief Animated History of Weapons

The Age of the Piano . From 1790 to the mid-1800s, piano technology and sound was greatly improved due to the inventions of the Industrial Revolution, such as the new high-quality steel called piano wire, and the ability to precisely cast iron frames.The tonal range of the piano increased from the five octaves of the pianoforte to the seven and more octaves found on modern pianos History of the Piano The story of the piano begins in Padua, Italy in 1709, in the shop of a harpsichord maker named Bartolomeo di Francesco Cristofori (1655-1731). Many other stringed and keyboard instruments preceded the piano and led to the development of the instrument as we know it today

Virtual piano is the perfect fit when you don't have a real piano keyboard at home or if your piano or keyboard aren't located next to a computer. The online piano keyboard simulates a real piano keyboard with 88 keyboard keys (Only five octaves for mobile users), a sustain pedal, ABC or DoReMe letter notes representation, zoom in and a full screen mode In our extensive online guide to the invention and evolution of today's modern piano, we take a chronological survey of the instrument's creators, predecessors, features and functions dating back to nearly 3,000 B.C The history of the piano traces back more than 3 centuries, and chronicles how the piano, most popular instrument in existence, continues to be the premiere instrument as we enter its fourth century. It is the most complex mechanical device in any home and is capable of fulfilling the player's every musical wish Steinway & Sons, also known as Steinway, (/ ˈ s t aɪ n w eɪ / ()) is an American piano company, founded in 1853 in Manhattan by German piano builder Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (later known as Henry E. Steinway). The company's growth led to the opening of a factory in New York City, United States, and later a factory in Hamburg, Germany. The factory in the Queens borough of New York City.

Piano, a keyboard musical instrument having wire strings that sound when struck by felt-covered hammers operated from a keyboard. The standard modern piano contains 88 keys and has a compass of seven full octaves plus a few keys Digital pianos are far more practical for everyday use, as they're far more compact in their design. They take up a lot less space in the average living room, dining room, or hallway than a full size grand piano. The downside of owning a digital piano is the fact that they cannot actually replicate the exact beauty of owning an acoustic piano Here's a brief history that shows how one man's dream to craft the world's finest concert grand pianos became a reality, thanks to the efforts of a century's worth of skilled craftsmen and musicians. Includes Yamaha acoustic pianos and Disklavier En pianist er en person som spiller piano.En profesjonell pianist kan framføre solostykker, spille med et orkester eller mindre musikalske sammensetninger (ofte referert til som kammermusikk), eller akkompagnere sangere eller soloinstrumentalister.. Klassiske konsertpianister starter vanligvis å spille piano i svært ung alder, noen så tidlig som i treårsalderen

The history of instruments with keyboards dates far back and originates from the organ, which sends bursts of air through pipes to make sound. Craftsmen improved upon the organ to develop an instrument that was a step closer to the piano, the clavichord Allow us to invite you on a short trip into the history of the PETROF company. Let us go back together into the past, when Antonín Petrof laid the foundations of the factory - now the largest producer of acoustic pianos in Europe - and recall the tortuous destinies of all six generations of the Petrofs and of the master piano-makers who work to this day in this honorable craft and family. Read Piano History Part One first. Let's continue discussing the history of the piano (short for pianoforte). We were talking about the piano of the the mid/late eighteenth century. By the mid 18th century, Romanticism in the arts became all the rage and the piano's popularity rose sharply Baldwin exports pianos to 32 countries around the globe. 1914. A Baldwin piano earns the grand prize at the Anglo-American Exposition in London. 1923. Player piano market peaks at 56 percent of the industry's total piano production. 1924. Mrs. Calvin Coolidge selects a Baldwin piano for the White House. 192

Pianoets historie - Pianoportale

  1. Historien om Roland Digital Piano. Utviklingen som aldri stopper. Rolands søken etter å bygge det ultimate elektroniske pianoet begynte like etter at selskapet ble grunnlagt i 1972
  2. This history of the piano covers the period from the piano's invention to modern times, with background information on its predecessors in earlier centuries. The popularity of the piano throughout history has lead to many taking piano classes to learn this historical art. The page will be updated on a regular basis
  3. History of Pianos We are attempting to give you a very brief overview of the development of the piano and a few pictures of some of the important pianos in history. The pictures and text are copied with permission from Piano, A Photographic History of the World's Most Celebrated Instrument , by David Crombie, published by Backbeat Books
  4. Piano history was also shaped by the world's first stringed instrument, the harp. Encouraged by the harmonic plucking sound of a hunter's bow and arrow, the harp was born way before the days of early antiquity. In fact, its been around so long that it has even been mentioned in the Book of Genesis in the Bible
  5. History of the Piano and Related Instruments. Piano is one of the most popular instruments of our modern history, being present in various forms from the appearance of the modern civilizations and was carefully improved over the last one thousand years with the attention that was provided from hundreds of innovators, engineers, musical experts and luthiers from all around the world
herskabslejlighed københavn 1800 tallet - Google-søgning

American Piano History A useful site for information on American piano history, with some data on sales and piano production in the USA. By Roy E. Howard, Ph.D. Beale Piano A history of the Beale piano in Australia, with some photos and serial numbers. British Harpsichord Society No pianos but lots of info on harpsichords the following is a partial list of some 12,000 piano brand names catalogued worldwide (including those no longer in production) after locating a brand name, you may wish to find out more with the services listed belo

Wurlitzer Pianos is one of the oldest names in the piano manufacturing industry in the United States. The quality of their pianos can be lined up with the best names in the realm of piano manufacturing and design. Company History. Wurlitzer was established in 1853 by Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer Historie. Den 17. desember 1903 gjennomførte de amerikanske brødrene Wright (Wilbur og Orville Wright) historiens første bemannede flygning med en motorisert flygemaskin. Tidligere hadde pionerer som blant andre Otto Lilienthal eksperimentert med glidefly, og det var ved systematiske studier av flypionerenes resultater, at Wright-brødrenes fly ble en suksess The piano is the most popular musical instrument in the world. As a concert instrument and the primary musical instrument in private homes, the piano enjoys a long and colorful history as an important source of inspiration and pleasure for both professional and amateur musicians

Piano history. A piano is an acoustic stringed instrument which produces sound when the strings get struck by hammers. The player activates the hammers by pressings keys on a keyboard. The harder the pressure, the louder the sound. But, it wasn't always like that Puedes descargar la Infografía de la Historia del piano desde el siguiente enlace: http://www.tecnopiano.com/a/historia/ Escuela de Tecnología Pianística de. Short History of the Pianoforte . He called his invention a gravicembalo col piano e forte-a keyboard instrument that can be played soft and loud. This name was shortened to pianoforte, (soft-loud) and eventually to just piano. The action of Cristofori's piano was very simple History Of The Piano — George Steck Walt 'Whitman first delivered the Death of Lincoln lecture at Steck Hall in New York on April 14, 1879, [ to an audience of 60 to 80 people ] to reflect upon the meaning of Lincoln's death to an American nation pressed to reunite and heal from the wounds of the Civil War. The history of the piano is an inspiring story of creativity and invention. Learning the history of an instrument can be a great inspiration to start playing it yourself! The piano has maintained its popularity over the years in part because it's one of the easiest instruments to learn how to play


Piano - Wikipedi

  1. Claudio Arrau (1903-1991) It's said that this great Chilean pianist could read music before he could read words. It wasn't long before he was playing works like the virtuosic Transcendental Etudes by Liszt.He's perhaps best-known for his interpretations of the music of Beethoven.The legendary conductor Colin Davis said of Arrau: His sound is amazing, and it is entirely his ow
  2. This Piano History Timeline starting from the 1700s to the 2000s hits on all the important dates from the birth to the modern day of the piano. 6 Must Read . Features. Featured. How to Sell a Guitar - and Make Money. In the 30-plus years I've been playing music, I've owned dozens of guitars
  3. Although the piano can trace its history back to this pipe organ, the piano is a member of a different sound production family as it uses the vibration of strings, not air
  4. Brand and History Yamaha's history began when its founder, Torakusu Yamaha, repaired a broken reed organ in 1887. Shortly thereafter, he successfully completed the first reed organ to be built in Japan
  5. If your grand piano is a GH1G, GH1FP, GC1G, or GC1FP, your piano was manufactured in Thomaston, Georgia. If your grand piano is a GA1E, DGA1E, GB1, DGB1, GB1K, or DGB1K, your piano was manufactured in Jakarta, Indonesia. If your grand piano is any other model, it was manufactured in Hamamatsu, Japan
  6. 6 Hour Relaxing Piano Music: Meditation Music, Relaxing Music, Soft Music, Relaxation Music, ☯2423 - YellowBrickCinema's Instrumental Music includes relaxing..
  7. Fazioli Piano History. Fazioli. Paolo Fazioli was born in Rome in 1944, into a family of furniture makers. From an early age he demonstrated a keen interest in the piano. During his studies he developed a fascination in piano construction technology
CeU zu Gast bei dem Pianohaus Trübger

The serial number of your piano can be found stamped somewhere on the frame or soundboard. On Story & Clark grand pianos the number may be found on the key stop rail and/or the soundboard. The number shown here is the last serial number manufactured in that year. Serial numbers for newer Story & Clark grand and upright pianos are not available History of the Piano Action. Renner Found in All Top Quality Pianos. Renner is the largest independent action manufacturer for upright and grand pianos in the world. The company's success is due to their unsurpassed quality, and ability to produce custom made actions for the individual customer Piano History and Who Invented the Piano. The story of the inventor of the piano is truly remarkable and inspirational and so is the instrument itself. Every musician of modern day owes some degree of gratitude for all the mentioned inventors with the whose contribution, we can enjoy such sensational musical till date Steinway piano, the best musical instrument in the history of the world, may be argued to be greater than all those things combined. In a way, Steinway Model D concert grand piano culturally justifies the existence of America. We live in critical time for our civilization

Company History The company was founded by Dwight Hamilton Baldwin in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1862. Also known as D.H. Baldwin, the name has always been one of the most widely renowned names in the American piano industry and history. The company originally began as a retail enterprise, who sold Steinway and Chickering pianos Upright piano, musical instrument in which the soundboard and plane of the strings run vertically, perpendicular to the keyboard, thus taking up less floor space than the normal grand piano. Upright pianos are made in various heights; the shortest are called spinets or consoles, and these are generally considered to have an inferior tone resulting from the shortness of their strings and their. Historien om Tjuvholmen. Tjuvholmen var opprinnelig cirka fem dekar stor og kupert, og har en historie tilbake til 1600-tallet som rettersted, Astrup Fearnley Museet på Skjæret, innflyttet 2012 (arkitekt Renzo Piano) Parkanlegg: Strandhagen på østsiden av Odden,. Kohler & Campbell Piano History Post Views: 2,563 Founded in 1896 as a partnership between Charles Kohler and J. C. Campbell, in less than 20 years Kohler and Campbell became one of the world's leading manufacturers of upright and grand pianos, player pianos and automatic reproducing actions

History. The piano has been an extremely popular instrument in Western classical music since the late 18th century. The piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy.He made his first piano in 1709. It developed from the clavichord which looks like a piano but the strings of a clavichord are hit by a small blade of metal called a tangent First piano patent was issued to H. Steinway in 1857. Yamaha was first Japanese manufacturer of pianos. They started making them in 1887. Between 1830 and 1840, two very popular piano designs were created - upright pianos and grand pianos. First electric piano was made in 1947. US currently hosts over 10 million pianos A fascinating celebration of the piano, including tales of its masters from Mozart and Beethoven to Oscar Peterson and Jerry Lee Lewis, told with the expertise of composer and author of Temperament, Stuart Isacoff. This history takes us back to the piano's humble genesis as a simple keyboard, and shows how everyone from Ferdinando de' Medici to Herbie Hancock affected its evolution of sound.

Norsk Pianohistorie - Pianoportale

Seattle Chamber Music Society is pleased to present a weekly lecture series on the history of music written for the piano with Max Levinson.Each 1-hour class will delve into the history of this fascinating and unique instrument and will conclude with a live performance from Max Multiplayer Piano is an online, full 88-key piano you can play alone or with others in real-time. Plug up your MIDI keyboard, MIDI in and out are supported. You should be able to hear some seriously talented piano players performing here! Join in or just chat and listen History The first piano was built as early as 1694 and was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy. The three pianos built by Cristofori that survive today date from the 1720s. The piano replaced the harpsichord as the most popular keyboard instrument of the Romantic era Test your knowledge of the history, development, and early predecessors of the piano using this interactive quiz. Use the worksheet to identify..

The history of the piano - piano history and fact

Home » Piano History » Early Piano History. The story of the early history of the piano starts with ancient man. The piano is partly a stringed instrument, and partly a keyboard instrument. That's why its history grows in two directions. The Development of Musical Instruments from Ancient Time, until 190 It starts with over 12,000 parts, fashioned from the finest aged woods and the world's most advanced materials. Each piece is assembled by artisans in a tradition of old world craftsmanship. When it all comes together, and you touch the perfectly balanced keys and hear the rich harmonics and subtle, silky colors, you know it's not just any grand piano This short history fits neatly into just a hundred years. There were pianos before then (in Italy, for example) and the square piano survived longer in mainland Europe and particularly America, but the last Square piano made in England was delivered by Broadwoods in 1866

Pianoet 300 år - Arkiv - NRK

Hundreds of American piano companies also sprang up to compete with the more expensive European piano makers. Names such as Baldwin, Chickering, Mason & Hamlin, Steinway & Sons, Story & Clark, Weber, and Wurlitzer, just to name a few, did extraordinary sales and some made huge contributions to the history of the piano Classic Pianos is a fourth-generation family piano company owned by industry leader, Maurice Unis and his three sons. Steeped in pianos, the history of Classic Pianos stretches far back, past its initial founding, to when the company's owner, Maurice, was a child

- The history of the piano - The Viennese Action (1786) In South Germany they made their fortepianos much lighter then in England. They wanted to have a light and sparkling tone which would be handier for rapid phrases. J.A. Stein, working in Augsburg, developed an action Viennese action to match these characteristics. - The history of the piano History of the Piano Masterful musicians can learn the origins of the piano with this music history worksheet! Have your student take a look at the earliest models of the piano, read a bit about their creators and then answer some comprehension questions 35. In the 1890's average pianos sold for around $250. Steinway may have sold for around $1000. In the early 1900's a Lester concert grand was about $1100. We will add more piano facts later. Plus a few more opinions. Check out our Piano Care page! Also See: History of the Piano. Piano Buying Guide. Sell My Piano. Piano Makers & Piano Brand The history of the Hof Pianofortefabrik Wilhelm Schimmel began on May 2, 1885, the day on which, in a modest work­ shop in a town not far from Leipzig, the first Schimmel piano was created. 'I was so proud to rent my first own workshop. A tiny room with two windows in the front.

pianoforte - Store norske leksiko

Piano keyboards have not always been the size they are today; between 1784 and 1876, they had narrower keys. Sakai (2008) has documented the variations in keyboard span of various keyboard instruments dating back to 1559 Piano Marvel is an incredible resource for improving sight reading, but it is so much more than that. It challenges students in a motivating and interactive environment by assessing your current level and helping you set achievable and realistic goals The venerable history of Hallet Davis Pianos. Hallet Davis Factory - circa 1839 . Hallet, Davis & Co. can trace its origins to the year 1835. It was among the oldest of the historic Boston piano companies Also there is more information on antique pianos beginnings in history. Antique Pianos. This is only a partial listing of more than 200 piano manufacturers during the 19th & 20th century's. We have gathered information for some of them from our own experiences. If you have something to add please contact us with your piano information

This listing contains hundreds of pianos in it's long history of manufacturing. Many piano company names on this list are no longer used and the makers in some cases have been out of business for years. Many names are owned by various existing piano companies that are not currently (2012) using some of them on their instruments Sales History. Digital Pianos. Our history and our staff. T he Roberts family have been in the trade for four generations, starting in 1919 with David Roberts who worked as a piano and organ tuner and restorer in the Exeter area. David's son Brian helped with piano restoration but went into music teaching The Pianola Institute was launched in 1985 to breathe new life into player pianos around the world, and to lure them back into the mainstream of music by means of recordings, exhibitions, publications and archive and study facilities.. The Aims of the Pianola Institute: A small number of pianola owners and musicians have been concerned for some time at the unnatural break between the world of.

The History of the Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofor

  1. Challen was best known for its small grand pianos, but it also made the world's largest grand piano in 1935 for the silver jubilee of King George Ⅴ. The piano measured a remarkable 11 feet 8 inches (355cm) in length, with a 9-foot, 11-inch-long(302cm) bass string, and weighed 1.25 tons. The tensile stress of this piano was estimated at 30 tons
  2. Other Piano Differences . In addition to the dimensions, different styles of pianos vary in their number of pedals and sometimes, their number of keys. Most pianos have 88 keys, though some older pianos have 85 keys, and some manufacturers make pianos that include additional keys (notably, Bösendorfer)
  3. Michael Atherton's new book traces the history of pianos in Australia from the First Fleet to modernity. Despite concerns over its demise, the instrument is unlikely to disappear any time soon
  4. Through our extensive ephemera collection, photos and historical texts, we are able to share nearly 200 years of history that has been locked away in private collections for decades. Scroll through original sales catalogs, vintage advertising and trade cards for a rare glimpse into the piano & organ industry as it was over a century ago
  5. Broadwood offers a history search on individual Broadwood pianos, a small charge of £60.00 is made for this service. Please print out the form if you would like to request a search on your piano. click here to print form. 1718. Burkat Shudi came to London, aged 16, from Switzerland where his family were craftsmen in wood
  6. CABLE Piano Company. The Cable Piano Company, Chicago established 1880 by Herman D. Cable born in New York in 1849. The Cable Piano Company was originally with the Wolfinger Organ Co., which later changed to the Western Cottage Organ Co., and then to Chicago Cottage Organ Co

History of the Piano ‹ Pianone

Unparalleled in their beauty and musical range,Yamaha grand pianos are the ultimate expression of the piano maker's art. Upright Pianos Yamaha's upright piano line includes a broad range of models designed to meet the requirements and sensibilities of pianists at all levels Piano History Piano History: Selected full-text books and articles. The Piano: A History By Cyril Ehrlich Clarendon Press, 1990 (Revised edition) Read preview Overview. The Piano: Its History, Makers, Players and Music By Albert E. Wier Longmans, Green, 1940. Read preview Overview. The. The Steinway piano has a unique history all of its own, Weller said. World-renowned classical pianist Van Cliburn once came to the chapel to play at a recital in the 1950s TINE sparer miljøet for tonnevis av plast med ny emballasje. TINE går i bresjen for å endre matbransjens bruk av unødvendig plast. Meieriselskapet har lansert flere nye emballasjeløsninger som vil kunne redusere TINEs plastforbruk med over 700 tonn hvert eneste år RÖNISCH is one of the oldest and most famous piano manufacturers in Germany. From 1845 to the present day, the first class instruments of the RÖNISCH manufacture are based on the long-standing traditions of artisan craftsmanship and catering to a sophisticated audience. › more informatio

Virtual Piano - Online Piano Keyboard OnlinePianis

The history of the piano is a history of technological change and innovation, starting over 300 years ago with the escapement action of Bartolomeo Cristofori and continuing with knee levers, pedals, action modifications, cast iron frame, and so much more Unparalleled in their beauty and musical range,Yamaha grand pianos are the ultimate expression of the piano maker's art. Upright Pianos Yamaha upright piano line includes a broad range of models designed to meet the requirements and sensibilities of pianists at all levels

The Evolution Of The Modern Piano (Facts, Photos and

1967 Release of the C Series grand pianos and the CF concert grand piano. Yamaha exhibited the CF concert grand piano at Frankfurt Messe, a musical instruments trade fair held in Germany. The beautiful tone of the CF earned it acclaim from piano experts, and it was subsequently adopted for use by renowned piano maestros and at international piano competitions Word History 'Piano': Its Name Is Only Half the Story. The soft and loud of it all. As a dictionary, our beat is words, not the history of musical instruments. But in the case of the word piano, we must start with the object itself. Next stop: Carnegie Hall. We begin at the dawn of the 18th century Listings of Piano Manufacturers If you would like your piano company added to our listings, please contact me directly. ABEL HAMMER COMPANY Riedwasen 2 74586 Frankenhardt Germany phone: +49 7959 2464 fax: +49 7959 2465 info@abel-pianoparts.com www.abel-pianoparts.com Allen Organ Company 150 Locust Street Macungie,Read more

The Winter Piano Company was originally established in 1899 by Julius Winter. In 1901, Julius Winter purchased the Heller Piano Company of New York, absorbing the Heller brand name into The Winter Piano Company. In 1903, a new, state-of-the-art factory was erected on Southern Boulevard, New York City Learn how to play Historia De Un Amor on the piano. Our lesson is an easy way to see how to play these Sheet music. Join our community Upright piano - This type of piano was designed to be more compact, especially for a home. The strings and the main frame sit vertically. There are also electric pianos that produce music with electronics. The keyboard and playing method can be the same as a regular piano, but often the sound can be very different

  • Naturfreundejugend bayern.
  • Acos ip hamar.
  • Ostekake med lemon curd.
  • Mini pig grown up.
  • Klassenarbeit biologie klasse 5 reptilien.
  • Aktivitäten winterberg.
  • Fm mattsson trondheim.
  • Egenskaper i søskenflokken.
  • Bryllups planleggingsbok.
  • Nak trauergottesdienst.
  • Røde kors uniform prisliste.
  • Sunday bloody sunday meaning.
  • Maria himmelfahrt feiertag.
  • Glidelås som har hoppet av.
  • Sylting av løk.
  • Die linke wirtschaft.
  • Speil møbler.
  • Silvester heidelberg schloss.
  • Prøve i energi for fremtiden.
  • Salat kylling prior.
  • Blygdläppsförminskning risker.
  • Schwimmbad brixen.
  • Pokemon alpha saphir meisterball cheat.
  • Akademische jahresfeier tu dortmund 2017.
  • Hvor er salsa fra.
  • Meldeplikt til barnevernet lovdata.
  • Chevrolet 2018 models.
  • Lengde staver topptur.
  • Regels bingo avond.
  • Otto von bismarck snl.
  • Data programvare.
  • Voorraadbussen ikea.
  • Sjalusiskap kjøkken ikea.
  • Lagre som pdf i word 2007.
  • Canon utility.
  • Samisk språk presentasjon.
  • Bröllop göteborg havet.
  • Chrysantheme blumensprache.
  • Miele tørketrommel a .
  • Alan bennett bøker.
  • Salto elevbok 4b issuu.